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๐ŸŒŠ 640M Water Insecure. Student Enrollment. Japan Population

Chart of the Day #92 looks at Student Enrollment, Water Insecurity and Japanโ€™s Birth Rates.

Ciao ๐Ÿ•

UNICEF, in collaboration with the National Directorate for Water and Sanitation (DINEPA) and associated stakeholders, has delivered over 2.6 million liters of potable water to children and families residing in 20 displacement sites in Haiti. UK universities are witnessing a significant decline in international student applications, with concerns raised about the potential negative impact on the country's creative sectors if additional restrictions are imposed on student visas.

Today's Topics

๐Ÿ“‰ Student Enrollment. Projected decline in US public school enrollment for grades 11 & 12
๐ŸŒŠ Water Insecurity. 640M critically water insecure globally
๐Ÿผ Japan Population. Japan marks record low births and record high deaths in 2023

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๐Ÿ“‰ Projected Decline in US Public School Enrollment for Grades 11 & 12

Enrollment in US high schools has ranged between 2.5 million and 4.5 million across grades 9 to 12 from 2000 to 2024. However, projections indicate a change in enrollment patterns by 2031, with enrollments in grades 11 and 12 projected to fall below 3.5 million, while grades 9 and 10 are expected to remain around 3.8 million. 

This projected distribution implies a potential drop in student progression through high school over time. The potential decline in upper grades can be attributed to changes in grade promotion (advancing to the next grade), transfer rates, and dropout rates which have influenced students' progression through high school. Pandemic disruptions, declining birth rates, and the availability of state choice programs offering public funds for private school tuition have further contributed to the longer-term decline in high school enrollments. 

๐ŸŒŠ 640M Critically Water Insecure Globally

Global water security confronts unprecedented challenges, affecting over 5.6 billion individuals, with 640 million living in critical conditions. This crisis stems from a combination of factors, including rising populations and diminishing freshwater resources. The Asian Pacific region bears the brunt, with 90% of its population already on the brink of a water crisis.

Countries like India are grappling with acute water insecurity, with over 163 million people facing uncertainty regarding their water supply. The situation is exacerbated by rapid urbanization, which demands substantial water resources, further straining already limited supplies.

China, another country at risk, is struggling with water scarcity. According to Lowy Institute 80% to 90% of China's groundwater is unsuitable for consumption, while half of its aquifers are too contaminated to support industry and agriculture. The pollution extends to its river systems, with half deemed unfit for drinking, and a significant portion posing risks to agricultural use.

๐Ÿผ Japan Marks Record Low Births and Record High Deaths in 2023

In 2023, Japan witnessed its lowest number of annual births, totaling 758K, marking a significant 26% decline since 2013. Conversely, deaths increased by 14%, reaching 1.5M in 2023, resulting in the largest population contraction in recent years. The average number of births per woman, a key indicator of fertility, fell to 1.26 in 2022, well below the replacement rate of 2.1 required to sustain the population without immigration.

The declining birth rates can be largely attributed to falling marriage rates. In 2023, only 490K unions were registered, a 5.9% drop from the previous year and the first instance in 90 years where the marriage rate dipped below half a million. This decline in marriages is a significant factor influencing the dwindling birth rates and forbodes a further decline as out-of-wedlock births are rare in Japan. Various societal factors also deter marriage and family life, including high living costs outpacing salaries, bleak job prospects, and corporate cultures that are not conducive to dual-working parents.

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