πŸ“– 13Y Free Education. 44% Wind Penetration. China's Ageing Population.

Chart of the Day #57 looks at China's Population Demographic, Free Education Systems, and Wind Energy Penetration.

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The world’s largest clean energy plant is being built in New Delhi, India. It is five times the size of Paris and will be able to produce enough electricity to power Switzerland. The Albert Einstein College of Medicine is set to make the school tuition-free after receiving a donation of $1B from Ruth Gottesman, a former professor and chair of its board of trustees.

Today's Topics

  • 🌍 Population Forecast. China's elderly population to overtake youth
  • πŸŽ“ Free Education. 13 years of free education offered in Sri Lanka
  • πŸƒ Wind Power. 44% wind energy penetration in Denmark

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🌍 China's Elderly Population to Overtake Youth

The UN's population forecasts indicate that China is on track to have a predominantly elderly (aged 61 and above) population by 2100. Males aged 61 and above currently account for around 15% of the male population and are projected to rise to nearly 45% by 2100. Women in the same age group are expected to comprise nearly half of the female Chinese population by the end of the century.

This demographic shift could be attributed to declining birth rates across Asia, where fertility rates saw a sharp decline from nearly six births per woman in the 1960s to less than two in 2021. Fewer newborns and youth will result in a large elderly share within a shrinking population. China's life expectancy also increased to 78.2 years from 74.8 years over the past decade, further contributing to the demographic transformation. The long-term effects of the "one-child policy" initiated in the late 1970s (later redacted in 2016) are emerging in the forecasted trend and have potentially influenced future demographic forecasts.

πŸŽ“ 13 Years of Free Education Offered in Sri Lanka

Among Asia-Pacific (APAC) nations, Sri Lanka has the longest duration of free primary and secondary school education, spanning 13 years. China and India offer only 9 and 8 years, respectively. Interestingly, government expenditure on education (as a % of GDP) for Sri Lanka is only 1.2%, while China and India record 3.3% and 4.6% respectively. While Sri Lanka provides a longer duration of free education, the spending is likely insufficient to enhance quality through infrastructure improvements, curriculum updates, and teacher training.

An analysis of the 2022 PISA scores in Asia revealed that in Math and Science, out of five countries, the average scores in Sri Lanka were the lowest, reflecting that investment into quality initiatives in Sri Lanka is likely to be comparatively low. Free education is a positive step, lessening the impact of income inequality on access. However, ensuring education quality is also vital for sustained economic growth.

πŸƒ 44% Wind Energy Penetration in Denmark

Wind energy penetration is the share of energy supplied to the power grid by wind generation relative to the total energy generated from all sources in the same period. European countries lead in ranking, with Denmark blowing ahead with 44% of wind energy penetration. The United States ranked second in annual wind capacity in 2022 but remained well behind the market leaders in wind energy penetration.

Denmark's strategic location in the North Sea, known for its shallow waters and optimal wind conditions, makes it ideal for wind power generation. Denmark has also decided to construct the world's first artificial wind energy island in the North Sea. Combined with offshore wind projects being developed in Germany and Belgium, this will help strengthen the integration of Europe’s power grids and help drive Europe to climate neutrality.


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